When your dealership is serious about EVs…

General Motors requires that any dealership that sells the Bolt EV must have a DC Fast Charger. It does not require that it get installed.DCFCThe charger is over $10K in cost and, at least in the case of Classic Chevrolet, where I work, the additional service we had to bring in more than doubled the project cost.

I’m happy to report that ours was installed this week. I’ve been keeping my inventory charged for test drives and purchase, on our multiple Level 2 chargers. Now, I’m looking forward to the next batch of Bolt EVs to arrive, so I can try this baby out!

Solar panels: 1st year’s results

Solar Volt

***NERD ALERT!!!***

I’ve been waiting a year for this: The analysis to see if solar panels were a good idea or not. If you don’t care about the technical details of the math/spreadsheet, just jump ahead to the “RESULTS” section below.

Oddly, it was during the Winter Solstice that our solar panels were turned on, odd because that’s the shortest day of daylight all year long. I’ve been waiting for a year to see where we are, in energy generation, in order to understand if this was a good investment for us. To make it easier for me to analyze our results, I downloaded solar panel data from January 1, 2017 through December 31, 2017. What follows is what I found.

Here’s how our generation went, over the previous year:Solar Generation 2017As expected, there was more energy generated during the Summer than the Winter. It’s pretty simple to understand: The sun is up longer each day, during the Summer (in the Northern Hemisphere), due to the Earth’s axis tilt, in relation to the plane of its orbit around the sun. This was expected and the vendor’s projections showed this was going to happen. The vendor we went with, estimated we’d generate 15,810 kwh per year.

Our average annual usage, over the three years we’ve lived at this residence, is 23,766 kWh per year. In 2017, we used 25,001.974 kWh, or about 5% more than an average year.

Our actual energy generation was 13,408.39 kWh, a 2,401 kWh shortfall, or about a 15% shortfall, from the estimated production our vendor expected. We used 17,477.092 kWh from the grid and sold 5,883.508 kWh back to our electricity provider, Green Mountain Energy. This resulted in a net usage, from the grid, of 11,593.584 kWh. We selected Green Mountain Energy, as our electricity provider, because they buy our surplus generation at the same price that they charge for electricity they sell to us. This seemed to make it easier to do a year-end analysis. They upped our rate from 8.6¢ per kWh to 11.5¢ per kWh for their “Solar Buy Back” plan. Should we have stayed with the lower rate and given them our surplus production for free? There was no way for me to estimate this. Also, they didn’t mention this when we signed up. The salesperson, although we mentioned our new solar panels several times on the phone call and asked about solar buy-back, failed to put us on the correct plan. We were under the impression we were getting the electricity at 8.6¢ per kWh. Two months into the contract, I called to ask why I wasn’t seeing any solar buy-back on our bill. That’s when they realized we were on the wrong plan. I was not pleased to hear this.

Part of the solar panel installation included having a new meter installed. The “smart meter” allowed for electricity to be tracked as it flowed from the grid into our home and from our home to the grid (when the solar panels were producing more electricity than our home was using). Both my electricity provider and I could access this data in a CVS file format, perfect for importing into a spreadsheet for analysis.

At the end of the first year, I downloaded the CVS file and it was GIGANTIC. The original spreadsheet, covering the entire year in 15 minute segments was over 70,000 rows long. generation (solar panel surplus) and consumption (from the grid) were on separate rows. For the purposes of analysis, I combined the two rows for each 15 minute snapshot into a single row, reducing the number of rows to only 35,041 rows. Only?!?!?

My first question was whether the electric company had cheated me by knowing that most people won’t check to see if they actually bought as much surplus as the panels created. The electric company’s website allowed me to see my daily use of their electricity as monthly bar graphs, but did not let me download it as a spreadsheet. I had to click on each day’s bar, in the graph, to see the usage. I then manually entered that day’s value into a new column I added to my spreadsheet. To compare with the 15 minute intervals, I had to add all the increments for a day (96 rows for most days) so that I had comparable numbers. I then added a new column to add those results. I added a test equation for each day to see if what the electric company said we used matched what the smart meter said we used. I also added a column for each day to total up the surplus electricity we generated (if any) for all the 15 minute segments of the day, in order to see what we were selling back to the grid.

After all that work, I found that Green Mountain is a trustworthy company. But there was an issue. The work was so laborious, that I tried copying the equations from one day to the next. Once I had a month’s worth of equations, I tried copying and pasting a month at a time. I felt I must have messed up somewhere because the equations were supposed to end up on the row of the last 15 minute segment for each day, but it didn’t work that way. What had I done wrong???

I fixed the error when it first occurred and then tried copying and painting a month at a time again. When I had completed the year, I noticed the error had occurred a second time! As I scrolled through the data, I found one day where four rows seemed to be repeated, (but the usage values were different) and I found another day where an entire hour was missing. On March 12th, it jumped from 2:00AM to 3:00AM and on November 5th, the hour from 1:00AM to 2:00AM was duplicated. What the hell???

D’oh!!! It was due to Daylight Savings Time starting and ending!

Once I had the spreadsheet completed, I could finally start to evaluate electric provider pricing plans to determine (based on real world data) which pricing plan was most beneficial to us. Here’s what I found. Green Mountain’s Solar Buy Back, even though at a higher kWh rate, saved us about $21 per month, over the lower rate that did not buy back surplus energy.

My next stop was Texas’ Power To Choose website. In Texas, electricity providers are, by law, broken up into three groups: power generation, power delivery and power retailing. In my case Green Mountain Energy was my electricity retailer. Oncor is the company that maintains the power lines and is paid by the kWh to transfer electricity from the generation plant to my home (this charge is added to my electric bill from the retailer). Green Mountain, in turn buys electricity from the power generation plants. This split of the industry has increased competition and helped keep costs lower than in other areas of the country, but also makes it difficult for EV charging networks, because they cannot sell electricity, by the kWh, to the end user. They have to charge by the time your EV is plugged in. This means slower charging EVs are penalized. They may get the same amount of electricity, but pay more because they are connected longer to get it.

I knew of companies, like TXU, that offered time-of-use plans, giving the consumer a lower price at night (when grid demand is lower) than during the day (when demand is higher). This called for a new section of the spreadsheet, where I could differentiate between night kWh and day kWh. I checked the TXU website and found that the customer can pick one of three start times for the night rate. The duration of the night pricing would be the same, eight hours. At night, TXU’s electricity is free but, during the day, their price per kWh is higher than companies that don’t differentiate between day and night rates. The new section of the website would allow me to analyze this to compare electric rates. Unfortunately, the free nights plan does not buy my excess solar generation, so that had to be taken into consideration as well. As I read about the TXU plan, after adding the new section to the spreadsheet, I realized their electricity is 90% from non-renewable sources, so that plan would not work for us. It was the lowest priced plan I evaluated with the spreadsheet, besting our Green Mountain plan by about $32 per month on average.

I continued to search for electricity providers on the Power To Choose site, looking for companies that offered time-of-use plans that sourced their energy from renewable sources. There was only one: a company named “Volt.” Imagine that! Volt designates twelve full hours at night rate, but it’s 9:00PM to 8:59AM. The consumer cannot pick the start time. Their night energy is not free, but is at a lower rate than daytime. So, once again, it was time to add functionality to the spreadsheet. This proved to be higher than our Green Mountain buy-back plan by about $$5 per month. This meant that, without the ability to predict production or day/night balance, we had selected the best plan that also provided 100% renewable energy, when provided by the grid.

Adding this spreadsheet capability gave me more insight into my electricity usage as well as the ability to compare these providers to one another effectively.


As I mentioned before, solar panels generate more energy in the Summer than Winter, because the sun is visible much longer then. Here’s the breakdown of our energy usage from the grid and from the panels, by month:Solar vs Grid by MonthIt is also important to have your panels facing south. The front of our house faces south, but as you can see in the first picture in this post, the roof does not slant down toward the front of our house. This means each bank of panels only produces near full capacity for about half of each day.

As you can see from the chart above, both total usage and solar generation were highest in the Summer. Our heating system uses natural gas, so our electric usage drops precipitously in the Winter. Here’s the numbers:Energy Results TableSolar vs Grid pieThe far right column shows the percentage of solar versus grid energy used. The peak for solar percentage was 72.5% in April, when mild temperatures and sunny days kept energy demand low and production of the panels high. The worst performance was 35.5% solar in December, when skies were often cloudy and colder temperatures meant our electric mileage of our Volts was low, so electric demand for charging was greater. How these two sources would compete, month by month was a mystery to me, until I had the data in hand. Of course, this was after I’d had the panels for an entire year, so this insight came too late to help inform our decision on whether to add the panels or not. Another bit of data gleaned: I could see exactly how the two sources of power ranked. 54% of the electricity we used came from the solar panels and 46% from the grid (by kWh).

Day vs Night pieThe day/night section I added to the spreadsheet allowed me to easily see when we use electricity and it was a real eye-opener. Unlike most people, in Texas, our energy usage is biased to nighttime use. We have up to three Chevy Volts charging at night and those can account for over half of our total usage, on some days. This makes the time-of-use plans look very interesting. It also means we should possibly be evaluating battery storage, in the event we select a plan that doesn’t offer surplus energy buy-back.

So finally I had come to the moment of truth: Was it a good idea to go solar or not? To get to the answer, I created yet another table that analyzed the financial side of this. There were basically a few things to compare:

  • The actual cost over the last year, compared to energy purchases without panels,
  • Comparing time-of-use plans to energy purchases without panels,
  • Comparing time-of-use plans to plans with or without solar surplus buy back.

Here’s that table:Financial ResultsHere’s what you’re seeing in the table above:

The first three rows are are the price to buy electricity, the price the electric company pays for surplus energy generated by the solar panels (which can be zero for some companies) and the price I’d be paying if I did not have the solar panels.

The next four rows (blue & yellow background) are the day and night prices for a company that offers time-of-use pricing and the start and end times for the night pricing. Those companies typically do not have a buy-back of surplus energy.

The next four rows are how the year actually went in kWh usage as well as the costs associated.

The next two rows (blue & yellow background) are the costs involved with time-of-use providers.

The “Cost For Solar Panels” row is the monthly payment for our solar panels, after applying the 30% Federal Income Tax Credit. This payment has to be taken into account, as a cost of energy used, if I’m being completely honest with myself (and you).

The next line is interesting. In Texas, adding solar panels to a home, on average, increases the value of the property by $15,000 but the state does not tax that additional property value. This tax savings has to be considered as a reduction to my costs and therefore an energy savings. The $15,000 increased value, in my opinion cannot be considered, since it won’t be realized, until we sell our home and move away.

GME std plan vs. solar buy backAs can be seen in the partial table above, we are paying $76.05 more for electricity, per month, than we did without the solar panels. For all the comparisons below, I am using the non-solar panel plan from Green Mountain, so everything, including our last year’s results, are being compared to the same benchmark. The tax savings amount to $35 per month, reducing this deficit to $41.05 per month. The cost of the solar panels, after tax credit, was $23,436, which we financed over their 20 year warranty period.

Next, I compared The free nights from TXU. There are three possible start times, 8PM, 9PM or 10PM. All have 9 hours of free energy. All three plans would cost us more than Green Mountain’s current non-solar rate by $104.56, $113.44 and $121.72, respectively. Since the buy-back plan is only $76.05 over the non-solar plan and because TXU’s plan is only 10% renewable energy, this is a non-starter for us. (see below)

8PM start:

TXU Free Nights 8PM

9PM start:TXU Free Nights 9PM

10PM start:TXU Free Nights 10PMNext up is Volt’s reduced price nights plan, which uses 100% renewable energy. Even this plan is more expensive than Green Mountain’s solar buy-back, by about $6 per month.Volt plan

Are you starting to see why I love my spreadsheet? 😉 With this tool, I will be able to realistically compare plans, based on our actual usage scenario. These plans used to be completely opaque to me.

Part of the expected payback is the expected rise in the cost of electricity. Only time will tell if that comes to pass. When we first selected Green Mountain Energy as a 100% renewable energy provider, about 15 years ago, we paid a premium for their product. In time, it became competitive and I feel the early adopters, like us, helped Texas become the number one state in wind-generated electricity. Once again, I’m on the bleeding edge, and am proud to be so.

P.S. I am now very interested in battery backup technology for my solar panels…once they become more affordable. I’m also considering adding more panels when they come down more in price.

December 2017 Sales Numbers

December 2017 plug-in vehicle sales were mostly up, over the previous month, with two exceptions: The Nissan Leaf and the Ford Fusion Energi. As I mentioned last month, Nissan has announced the next generation Leaf, with much more range (and somewhat improved looks) than the current model.

In a repeat of last month’s post, the chart shown below, shows my Volt and Bolt EV sales by month, over the last four years, with my December 2017 sales fully accounted for. I’ve had two very good months of plug-in sales.

In total vehicle sales, December was a let down. In December 2016, I sold 24 vehicles, including 8 Volts, making plug-ins 33% of my total sales that month. In December 2017, my vehicle sales totaled just 13 vehicles, of which 10 were plug-ins, for 77% of the total! Although I’d have liked higher sales volume, the 77% takes some of the disappointment away.My Plug-Ins by Month

In the chart below, The Bolt EV’s U.S. sales are represented by the dark blue/green line that starts in December 2016. Bolt EV’s December sales were only bested by the Tesla Model X (barely) and the Model S (which bounces around a lot). The Bolt EVs assumed main competitor, the Tesla Model 3, is the dark purple line that starts in July 2017. Today, it was reported widely that Tesla has pushed back the date for production ramp up to 5,000 vehicles a month, to mid-2018. I’ve had three Bolt EV deals that were originally Tesla deals, due to delays in production. At about 1/2 the price of a readily available Tesla model, the Bolt EV, to borrow an old tagline from Apple, is becoming “the EV for the rest of us.”December 2017 EV Sales Numbers Once again, I am going to point out the beginning of the adoption curves. The curve taking off the fastest continues to be the Chevy Bolt EV. This month, its adoption curve has diverged even more from the rest of the pack. It is truly making a splash. Can you imagine if GM really got behind promoting it and the Volt???Bolt EV ZoomHere are the December 2017 sales figures, compared to the previous month:

  • Chevy Volt: UP 14% (1,937 vs. 1,702)
  • Chevy Bolt EV: UP 8% (3,227 vs. 2,987)
  • Nissan Leaf: DOWN 42% (102 vs. 175) **new model announced
  • Plug-in Toyota Prius: UP 32% (2,420 vs. 1,834)
  • Tesla Model S: UP 273% (4,975 vs. 1,335) **estimated
  • Tesla Model X: UP 76% (3,300 vs. 1,875) **estimated
  • BMW i3: UP 137% (672 vs. 283) **new model announced
  • Ford Fusion Energi: UP 20% (875 vs. 731)
  • Ford C-Max Energy: DOWN 17% (436 vs. 523) **end of model announced
  • Tesla Model 3: UP 207% (1,060 vs. 345)

In December, the average price of gasoline fell from $2.54 per gallon, the previous month, to $2.46 last month. Gasoline started out around $2.47 per gallon. It dropped steadily, bottoming out at $2.42 on the 18th. It then rose to $2.49 at the end of the month.

My December sales were my second-best ever, but as I mentioned above, they were lower than I anticipated.My Sales By WeekMy thirteen December sales were comprised of seven Bolt EVs, three Volts, one Silverado, one Cruze, and one Tahoe. I probably could have sold even more Bolt EVs, but we ended up with only three left in stock and did some dealer trades to get specific options buyers wanted. There was also a serious delay in shipping Bolt EVs to us. Bolt EVs leave the factory, on a train bound for Ohio. There, they are unloaded and put on a train headed to Texas. For some reason (I was told it was a railcar shortage) nine Bolt EVs we ordered were delayed in Ohio for a month! My Volt sales gained ground against pickups, again last month. I have only been able to sell Bolt EVs for 6 months, but it has already surpassed my 51 months of Corvette sales, becoming my 2nd place vehicle sold, over my entire time selling vehicles! An important note here, is this included the debut of the C7 Corvette, in 2014, which was very, very hot item.

By vehicle type, my lifetime sales are 27% plug-ins, 20% SUVs, 19% pickups, 16% sports cars. The rest are sedans & vans (18%).Vehicle Sales By Model

Plug-in sales, compared to the same month a year ago, were mostly down, with only two models showing an increase and both were new or revamped models: Bolt EV and the Prius Prime.

  • Chevy Volt: DOWN 48% (1,937 vs. 3,691) **Bolt EV effect?
  • Chevy Bolt EV: UP 466% (3,227 vs. 570) **Bolt EV debuted in December 2016
  • Nissan Leaf: DOWN 95% (102 vs. 1,889) **new model announced
  • Plug-in Toyota Prius: UP 47% (2,420 vs. 1,641)
  • Tesla Model S: DOWN 15% (4,975 vs. 5,850)
  • Tesla Model X: DOWN 15% (3,300 VS. 3,875)
  • BMW i3: DOWN 15% (672 vs. 791)
  • Ford Fusion Energi: DOWN 20% (875 vs. 1,099)
  • Ford C-Max Energi: DOWN 66% (436 vs. 1,289)
  • Tesla Model 3: (was not available in December 2016)

Taxing rumor mill…

CongressSeveral sites are quoting an unnamed Republican and announcing that the Federal Income Tax Credit for plug-in vehicles will be retained in the “reconciliation” bill.

For those unfamiliar with how our legislative process works, here’s a quick intro:

  • Lobbyist proposes a change to current law or a new law
  • Trench-coat-garbed smoking men meet in darkened public parking garage to exchange money and verbatim text of proposed law.
  • Congressperson enters new law as a bill.

(just kidding…I hope…)

  • The Senate and House both propose bills, in this case a tax reform bill.
  • Both the House and Senate committees debate and pass (or fail to pass) the bill from committee.
  • The bill is heard by the respective chamber and the entire chamber votes on the bill.
  • If the bills pass both the House and the Senate, someone has to iron out any differences, so that a singular, unified bill goes to the President’s desk for signature. This is done by a “reconciliation committee,” that makes compromises needed to assure passage through both chambers.
  • Both chambers vote on the reconciled bill.
  • If the reconciled bill passes both chambers, the bill is sent to the President for signature, making the bill the law of the land, or veto.

The big news for the last several weeks, in the EV world, is the House of Representatives had a clause, in their version of the tax reform bill, that eliminated the income tax credit, effective this December 31st. The Senate version kept the tax credit in place.

The first rumor I saw was that the reconciled bill contained the House’s wording, eliminating the tax credit.

Now, the latest rumor is exactly the opposite. Many sites are proclaiming the tax credit is saved.

My advice is unchanged: If you were considering the purchase or lease of a plug-in vehicle and the income tax credit was a major factor in the decision, do the following:

  • Do NOT trust. Verify. If there is no public announcement before January 1st, consider pulling the trigger on your acquisition instead of taking the risk of not getting the tax credit.
  • KEEP up the calls, emails, letters, tweets, Facebook posts, petitions, etc to your elected official up. Do NOT release the pressure, until we know the tax credit has been preserved!
  • Of course, if it is announced the tax credit is ending, I recommend taking advantage of it before year’s end. I wish I could do the same, but my current Volt lease doesn’t end until March 2019.
  • Of course, if both houses prematurely end the tax credit, vote against every single incumbent, regardless of party, in the next couple elections. Only then, will they remember who their bosses are and that they are in a subservient role.

November 2017 Sales Numbers

Beginning with this month, my charts will no longer include the Hyundai Ioniq Electric, as its sales have remained very low and there are other, more promising plug-in vehicles to track. In the charts, the Ioniq Electric has been replaced by Tesla’s Model 3. Admittedly, the Model 3 hasn’t fared much better… yet. However, the reservations placed make it a more important vehicle to track. As Tesla Motors continues to try to emerge from “production hell,” the story of their success or failure will be important, in the history of EVs. Ford Motor Company has announced the end of the C-Max Energi. Consequently, I will look for a suitable replacement. I’m leaning toward the Honda Clarity plug-in vehicle. However, since the Clarity has three different drivetrains (HFC, BEV, PHEV) I’m not sure if I’ll go with it. The sales figures aren’t broken up by drivetrain and I don’t want to muddy the plug-in waters with HFC sales numbers.

What vehicle would you suggest?

November 2017 plug-in vehicle sales were mostly up, over the previous month, with one exception: The BMW i3. I expect all plug-in sales to surge, at the end of each year, due to the nearness of the end of the year (and access to the income tax credit). The chart, shown below, shows my Volt and Bolt EV sales by month, over the last four years (December 2017 reflects three I have already sold this month but, of course, there will be many more to go, making the December orange bar much taller. Even without full December 2017 data, you can easily see the trend. There is an anomaly with March and April 2016 (yellow bars). That spike in sales was due to the introduction of the 2017 Volt. The 2016 Volt was not sold in Texas. The July/August 2017 spikes (orange bars) were fueled by the arrival of the Bolt EV in Texas and the factory orders, that had been placed by customers, in advance of those months. However, an obvious bias in plug-in sales, toward the end of the year, can clearly be seen. In November of 2016, I sold two Volts. Last month, I sold 10 plug-in vehicles (1 Volt, 9 Bolt EVs). In December of 2016, I sold 8 Volts. In the first two days of this month, I have already sold three plug-ins (1 Volt, 2 Bolt EVs). The only thing that can keep this month from blowing away all my previous plug-in sales results would be the very real possibility of running out of inventory! As it is, December in car sales is akin to trying to drink from a fire hose. This December, I’m going to have to get better at setting up appointments to maximize my availability to my customers.Plug-in Sales by WeekThis year, there will be additional buying urgency, caused by what happened two nights ago. The Senate passed their version of the Republican tax reform bill. As I posted earlier, the House version of this bill includes the termination of the Federal Income Tax Credit for plug-in vehicles, effective December 31st. The Senate version, the last time I checked, kept the tax credit in effect. Now, the two versions will be reconciled, behind closed doors, in conference committee. There is still a little time to a) get a plug-in vehicle, before the tax credit possibly goes away and b) contact your elected representatives to voice your opinion on this issue, or 3) sign a petition.EV Sales Numbers

Once again, I am going to point out the beginning of the adoption curves. The curve taking off the fastest is the Chevy Bolt EV. Its first twelve months of sales have have grown more rapidly than even the original Toyota Prius. If that curve can continue, transportation will fundamentally change much faster than I’ve been anticipating. The dark almost horizontal line, stretching from the first month to the fifth, is the Tesla Model 3. For an EV with 400K reservations and the majority of press coverage for two years, these two curves really show how Tesla is struggling with the Model 3 launch and the mass production strength of General Motors.Adoption curves

Here are the November 2017 sales figures, compared to the previous month:

  • Chevy Volt: UP 25% (1,702 vs.1,362)
  • Chevy Bolt EV: UP 7% (2,987 vs. 2,781)
  • Nissan Leaf: DOWN 18% (175 vs. 213) **new model announced
  • Plug-in Toyota Prius: UP 13% (1,834 vs. 1,626)
  • Tesla Model S: UP 19% (1,335 vs. 1,120) **estimated
  • Tesla Model X: UP 121% (1,875 vs. 850) **estimated
  • BMW i3: DOWN 59% (283 vs. 686)
  • Ford Fusion Energi: DOWN 1% (731 vs. 741)
  • Ford C-Max Energy: DOWN 8% (523 vs. 569) **end of model announced
  • Tesla Model 3: UP 138% (345 vs. 145)

In November, the average price of gasoline was $2.54 per gallon and started out around $2.53 per gallon, rising steadily until 8th. It peaked on the 18th at $2.57. After the 18th, prices steadily declined through the end of the month, bottoming out under $2.49.

My November sales have been pretty lackluster over the years I’be been selling cars. That is, until this year! This November my sales were over 3X my best November (2014) and 4X my average November. This is due to spiking Bolt EV sales. Without the ten Volt & Bolt EV sales last month, it would still have been my best November, but only by one unit sold.My Sales By WeekMy sixteen November sales were comprised of nine Bolt EVs, two Sparks (equalling my best total year of Spark sales!), one Silverado, one Colorado, one Tahoe, one Cruze and one Volt. Bolt EV is still the hot vehicle. Volt lost a little ground to pickups, and my total Bolt EV sales, over 5 months, is already 42% of my lifetime Volt sales. By vehicle type, my sales are 25% plug-ins, 21% SUVs, 19% pickups, 16% sports cars. The rest are sedans & vans (19%).Vehicle Sales By Model

Plug-in sales, compared to the same month a year ago, were mostly down, with two models showing an increase.

  • Chevy Volt: DOWN 33% (1,702 vs. 2,531) **the Bolt EV effect!
  • Chevy Bolt EV: (was not available in November 2016**new model announced
  • Nissan Leaf: DOWN 88% (175 vs. 1,457) **new model announced
  • Plug-in Toyota Prius: UP 135% (1,834 vs. 781)
  • Tesla Model S: DOWN 5% (1,335 vs. 1,400)
  • Tesla Model X: UP 108% (1,875 VS. 900)
  • BMW i3: DOWN 55% (283 vs. 629)
  • Ford Fusion Energi: DOWN 60% (731 vs. 1,817)
  • Ford C-Max Energi: DOWN 28% (523 vs. 721)
  • Tesla Model 3: (was not available in November 2016)